Knowledge development in nursing has been somewhat of a hot topic in the more scholastic endeavors of the profession for quite some time. As the profession grew from a focus centered on treating physical symptoms and conditions to a more well-rounded approach that considered psychological, social, and spiritual needs in addition to physical illness, the need to break down the process of knowledge development arose.By utilizing nursing theories, which support the use of evidenced based practice in most cases, it seems as though the profession of nursing gained more credibility in the scientific community as far as the value of the knowledge produced; I feel that utilizing processes akin to those already accepted as prudent by more â€˜establishedâ€™ scientific fields helped achieve that credibility.In order to get to nursing theories, however, the process had to begin with a philosophical component that can allow for a separation from concrete/ scientific knowledge, among other things, in order to promote more abstract concepts and different methods to look at how we come to that knowledge. McCurry (2009) touches on this premise as she describes how a common theme, in this case the common good of society, can be looked at from many different perspectives, as it creates an arena in which those perspectives can be arranged to determine how to go about investigating the perspectives further.Although it wasnâ€™t the center piece of the article, one highlight was a breakdown of how more abstract thoughts can be linked to the application of intentional actions through the use of theories, which stems from philosophical questions. Philosophy lays the ground work for knowledge production to be built upon. In a way, Kim (1999) echoed these sentiments as she discusses critical reflective inquiry and its applications in relation to pain management in a South Korean hospital setting.She admits that nursing has situations in which our therapeutic actions can be supported by one theory and conflicted by another. What it seemed to re-enforce was how our drive to answer the philosophical questions created by the issues we wish to address can use various forms to achieve that common goal, however, those that are centered around the evaluation of how our therapeutic actions actually pan out versus how we think they pan out will help us gain the most useful knowledge as long as we are able to recognize the need for, and benefit of, changes that help our patients out the most.We wouldnâ€™t be able to gain the â€˜knowledgeâ€™ that specific actions and changes are therapeutically beneficial without understanding why we wanted to make changes in the first place, and generating multiple attempts at making those changes to see which ones actually accomplished the goal would seemingly allow us to have the best chance at achieving what we set out to.Evaluating the nursing interventions we utilize to affect our patients for the better is important, we all know that. Abbott (1988) pointed out that although nursing is capable of evaluating our interventions in practice, we do not tend to emphasize the importance of breaking down specific practical interventions in an abstract way that allows for our ability to link the interventions we utilize to the thought processes behind it while we are out practicing our craft.This I can personally relate to, when considering how the first couple years of my personal practice was spent learning how to simply accomplish the tasks I was presented with in the time frame I was to accomplish them in (assessment, documenting, intervening, documenting, evaluating, intervening, documenting, documenting, documentingâ€¦ugh). I knew that there was good reason behind the things I was doing; however, I was not keenly aware of the concepts and philosophies that comprised that reasoning, I was simply focused on completing my tasks in a timely, safe fashion.Reed (2006) promotes the idea that nurses tend not to have a full understanding of the â€˜whyâ€™ we do the things we do, and went so far as to say that there might be a level of mysticism when it comes to the healing processes we are engaged in. That mysticism was essentially summed up by purporting that when we canâ€™t put our finger on the â€˜whyâ€™ we do what we do, we fall back on concepts like intuition and gut feelings. Itâ€™s not to say that we are incorrect in our intuitions, however, we donâ€™t have a strong link to the rationale behind it all the time.This is where the concept of breaking down the â€˜whyâ€™ we do what we do into more abstract, philosophical components can really benefit us, as we can extrapolate on the intuitions and gut feelings into philosophical questions and building blocks that theories can be generated from. When we utilize practice centered theories that arise from abstract, philosophical questions, the whole process of â€˜nursingâ€™ can be explained and evaluated with more ease, and the knowledge we generate could be seen as more credible.Just saying something is true because it is doesnâ€™t have a whole lot of weight behind it; showing how the knowledge we reference as truth comes to be and having evidence that supports it with results that highlight it is, by and large, the best way that nursing knowledge can be produced in a fashion that holds credibility with those that arenâ€™t of our discipline. We know how awesome we are, but itâ€™s hard to prove it to others without a process that everyone can relate to; that all starts with philosophy.
Strengths: *First major record label to create websites branded towards different music genres. First major record label to use downloading technology to promote sales of CDâ€™s and cassettes. *Merged with AOLâ€“AOL has the largest internet service provider in the industry. *BMG was the largest music club in the world, and arguably the leader of the five major labels. *BMG set up a series of websites dedicated to specific genres of music. These sites linked fans to the artistâ€™s websites, where they could download or purchase CDâ€™s. (Another innovative move from BMG) Weaknesses: * Through sites like CDNow and Amazon.com customers had the option of having CDâ€™s or cassettes mailed to them. Consumers may not want to â€œdealâ€ with downloading music from the net. They may just stick with what they have. Many sites had illegal downloads, so the conventional consumer may not want to bother with this new type of technology. * Although BMG was the first company to create branded websites for specific music genres, they only focused on promotional aspects here, rather than focusing on selling music and in turn making money. Opportunities: * The innovativeness and newness of the digital era could spark a surge ofÂ consumer interest in the music industry. For instance, the CD had a big impact on industry revenue; owners of tapes simply replaced their collections with CDâ€™s. * ;BMG is arguably the leader in the music industry, and consequently has the influence to take its existing customers with them into the digital mp3 era. * BMG had close relationships with all the players involved in setting tech standards for downloadable music. This could give BMG the heads up on newest technology, and an advantage for market entry. * If BMG begins to sell music on the internet, they can reduce their costs greatly by doing away with distribution and manufacturing expenses. Threats: * -In 1929 the new technology of radio posed a serious threat to the music industry. Could a similar event take place with Digital music, where BMG loses a lot of money due to a decrease in CD and cassette sales? * -Time Warner had one of the most advanced cable systems in the US. They were experimenting with services such as video on demand and HD TV so the possibility of digital music was definitely there for TW, and they had the internet resources to distribute it too. * -Would conventional music buyers want to go through the â€œhassleâ€ of joining a website, installing a media player, and then buying additional software to play the music at their convenience? * -With a 56K modem (one that many still used 7 years ago), a song took roughly 7 minutes to download. Ten songs can take 70 minutes, and that is not appealing or convincing enough for conventional consumers to switch over to mp3â€™s usage. * -Sonyâ€™s Kiosks in retail music stores posed a threat for BMG. These kiosksÂ allowed customers to choose from a variety of over 4,000 songs, and create their own CD within 15 minutes. Attacking Piracy at the Source- the CDâ€™s In order to attack piracy, record labels must start at the source. Nearly all of the music traded on the Internet originally comes from CDs, which can be easily copied, or â€œripped,â€ onto any computer as MP3 digital audio files. Most analysts point to CDs as the biggest hole in the music industryâ€™s strategy for aiding online piracy. The recording industry wants to make it harder for consumers to directly copy CDs, but it faces enormous hurdles. First, any barriers to copying must be â€œbackwards compatibleâ€â€“meaning the new technologies would have to work on old CD players that donâ€™t screen for pirated material, and vice versa. Eventually, the group â€œSDMIâ€ was formed, consisting of all the major players involved in setting the technological standards for downloading music.(AT&T, Microsoft, Liquid Audio, IBM, etc) SDMIâ€™s efforts have focused on installing digital â€œwatermarksâ€ on CD tracks that would enable copyright holders to trace illegal copies and to create devices that would refuse to play copied tracks. In its first phase, SDMI selected a watermark system created by Verance Technologies as the global standard. Future record releases for BMG- Copy Management. It is the Record labelâ€™s responsibility to protect the work of their artists. Copy management technology is one of several responses to illegal file sharing and mass copying, which has had a detrimental effect on the music industry (unit shipments have fallen 26% from 1.16 billion units in 1999 to 860 million units last year). There are a few features that are new to this type of technology: Device playability- These discs play just like an enhanced CD. Certain products recently tested had playability issues with DVD players, carÂ stereos and game consoles, yet these discs play on nearly all DVD players, car stereos, etc. Anywhere an enhanced CD will play, these discs will play. Mac playability â€“ The discs can now be played on a Mac like any other CD. Voluntary Collective Licensing- Music Industry and the Internet Many Record Labels have spent countless amounts of time evaluating alternatives that would pay artists while making file sharing legal. One solution that has emerged as the favorite is voluntary collective licensing. The concept is simple: the music industry forms a collecting society which then offers file-sharing music fans the opportunity to â€œget legitâ€ in exchange for a reasonable regular payment, for example $5 per month. So long as they pay, the fans are free to keep doing what they are going to do anywayâ€“share the music they love using whatever software they like on whatever computer platform they preferâ€“without fear of lawsuits. The money collected gets divided among rights-holders based on the popularity of their music. In exchange, file-sharing music fans would be free to download whatever they like using whatever software works best for them. The more people share, the more money goes to rights-holders.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.